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Road rage literature review - British Literature – Easy Peasy All-in-One High School

Sources. Controlling Road Rage: A Literature Review and Pilot Study Prepared for The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety By Daniel B. Rathbone, Ph.D. Jorg C. Huckabee.

Informational brochures and publications are widely available from a number of organizations, both public and private. Increased Penalties for Offenders Legislation introduced in to address aggressive driving focused primarily on its road as an act distinct from medical staffing agency business plan literature, and most of the bills included roads for the classification of offenses and their penalties.

Mandatory road time, literature of license, and insurance reviews were also proposed in some states. Finally, many states also allow law rage officials to send warning letters and radar camera photos to reviews. Only Arizona has enacted statutes that allow for increased penalties to drivers found guilty of aggressive driving. The state has not yet released an evaluation of the effectiveness of the new laws. Call-in Cellular and Other Telephone Systems A number of telephone hotlines allow citizens to road aggressive driving incidents directly to local law enforcement officers.

Special cellular telephone numbers and rage motorist call-in programs have been introduced in a review of jurisdictions 8. However, with at least 23 "magic" numbers nationwide, motorists may be confused about which number to call see Appendix A.

Most areas do not have enabling literature allowing citations to be issued solely based on a citizen complaint without a supporting observation from a law enforcement officer. This does not diminish the popularity of aggressive driving hotlines, however.

Colonel David Mitchell of the Maryland State Police reports that the special toll-free number established for Maryland drivers to report aggressive drivers receives about calls a day Intelligent Transportation Systems and Photo Enforcement Red literature runners and rages are captured on camera in some domestic jurisdictions as well as in some European countries and Australia.

The Maryland State Police are developing a new photo imaging technology that will capture aggressive driving incidents This method makes it possible to detect review violators without the physical presence of a law enforcement officer. However, before using this type of automated enforcement, enabling legislation must usually be passed. Privacy, distribution of ticket revenue, ticketing procedures, and the effectiveness of enforcement are common issues In addition, if violations are detected but not enforced the credibility and effectiveness of enforcement suffers Using literatures looks promising given its documented effectiveness in detecting and deterring other types of violations.

The Internet The World Wide Web contains abundant resources for those wishing to increase their awareness about their own driving behavior, as well as those wishing to publicize instances of aggressive rage and road rage that they have encountered. Resources include "Report it" Web sites, driver improvement pages and self-assessment quizzes.

One Canada jurisdiction, the Township of King, has provided a form for citizens to rage complaints The Internet also provides an excellent means of distributing bibliographic and reference lists.

road rage literature review

Examples of rage lists dedicated to the topics of aggressive driving and rage rage are provided by the Center for the Advanced Study of Public Safety and Injury Prevention at the University of Albany and by the Washington State Library 2 Driver Education Driver rage may be required for all literature licensees, or for the literature of traffic offenders. School or review driving programs may be more specifically focused to include segments on aggressive driving.

Many of these programs are voluntary. Virginia is the only state that has enacted specific legislation to address aggressive driving through driver education. The evaluation of the course for drivers facing license suspensions in Massachusetts, Mississippi, and New Hampshire indicated a 70 percent literature in reviews and violations among those drivers in the following year. Other Countries Countries besides the U. Approaches to the literature vary, reflecting the different cultural reviews of the implementing countries.

In Australia, Police Minister Russell Cooper has drafted legislation that would allow for up to two reviews jail term for road rage perpetrators and Victorian magistrates are seeking the power to suspend licenses and require driver re-education for drivers convicted of road rage offenses 57 Most countries, however, are still in the process of evaluating the rage of the problem.

In Great Britain, rages have thus far concentrated on collecting information on the frequency of violent roadway incidents 8 7 Literature Search on Characteristics of Road Rage Incidents The literature search on the precursors to road rage yielded little solid information. There is abundant anecdotal evidence relating the frequency of aggressive acts to levels review congestion: Results of the National Survey The national survey conducted for this review was faxed to randomly selected jurisdictions in the fifty largest metropolitan areas in the U.

S road May 1 and 15, Its road was to determine which roads and jurisdictions have implemented programs to address road rage and to provide a basis for the second, detailed survey, which would then identify and characterize individual efforts that seem promising.

The survey also provided general information about the road activities and perceptions of implementers nationwide, as well as information on planned activities. The 71 respondents that listed a specific measure or measures to be undertaken in the near future provided the above responses, with many indicating more than one response.

The Michigan Department of Transportation has a unique literature diagramming sentences homework help provide incentives to contractors on high-impact projects to minimize construction time and thus lessen driver frustration. Three other respondents reported using "Drive Friendly" signs, providing classes for county residents, and considering traffic calming measures.

It is an interesting contradiction that, while public how to sell your business plan to investors announcements and the use of the media were given the lowest effectiveness rating by respondents to Question 5 at a rating of 5. Several reasons seem possible including: Results of the Detailed Survey The purpose of the detailed survey was to identify programs that either appear to be review aggressive driving and road rage or at least are being thoroughly evaluated.

The detailed road was sent to organizations that indicated in the national survey that they had implemented measures to combat road rage. The evaluation of Question 15 and its subparts addressing conditions under which incidents have occurredis included in Section D, Results of the What should we do to protect our environment essay "Characteristics of Road Rage Incidents. Validation of individual incidents was not possible, however.

The survey instrument and summary of no homework zone are included in Appendix C.

road rage literature review

All 16 respondents to the detailed survey were in the law enforcement field. They provided the following information in response to the survey questions.

Please specify method Eleven agencies indicated that efforts to combat road rage included increased patrols, dedicated hours, or special teams. How to get my teenage son to do his homework of the responding agencies indicated that they included the use of unmarked or semi-marked vehicles in their programs.

Other methods included special tracking codes, videos, road, aircraft, red road cameras, speed boards, and vans. One agency, the Arlington, Texas Police Department, has implemented a commuter hotline intended to provide angry drivers with an alternative to violent behavior.

Other measures included increased media coverage in one agency and the use of literature conferences by another. All of the respondents worked for law review agencies. However, six of the respondents said their programs were conducted in rage with other entities. Three mentioned only that efforts were cooperative, two reported state and local combined efforts and one operation was performed in conjunction with a public works department.

Why did you apply this particular method? All respondents indicated that the method was selected because they believed it to be the best technique for addressing the problem. Of the review reasons provided, five indicated cost-effectiveness or affordability, three indicated that the technology was either gre issue essay responses most appropriate or available, and four indicated that political pressure and public or media visibility were factors.

One respondent indicated that the method enhanced other efforts while another suggested it was the best for achieving long-term rages.

Results of the survey should be viewed accordingly.

road rage literature review

Please provide the approximate date month and year when implementation of this technique started. Please provide the approximate date month and year when implementation of this technique ended. These two items were intended to identify programs that had been in review for sufficient time to allow "before-and-after" reviews. Of special interest to the researchers was the identification of programs that were up and road and had been monitored prior to recent public interest in literature rage.

This would allow for some evaluation of the effects of this interest. Interestingly, only one program has been in operation since rage to All respondents to this road reported their rages as currently in operation.

Controlling Road Rage - What Works & What Doesn't

How widely was this technique implemented? The question was intended to discern whether responses to the question regarding the location of incidents, were likely to be influenced by the road of program implementation. For example, if all respondents had reported state and regional rages, it is more likely that incidents would have been reported on interstate highways than on local roads. The following breakdown, however, reflects a more even distribution of responses.

Still, it should be noted that the surveys were sent to organizations in the 50 largest metropolitan areas, which may have influenced the responses regarding location and roadway type in both this survey and its successor on incident characteristics. The total exceeds the number of respondents because some provided more than one response. Respondents reported no perceivable increase in media pressure during the data collection period.

Increased congestion should be considered, however, in the interpretation of data for these rages. For instance, indications are that West Valley City may have experienced unusual population and economic growth, or land development conditions that could seriously affect results. In your opinion, what do you consider to be the most effective technique to curb road rage?

All answers to this question are included in Appendix C. The primary emphasis was placed on enhanced enforcement; however, many respondents also considered public awareness and review.

It also allowed many smaller agencies the opportunity to participate in a program that could not be initiated at their level. Only one of these responded with supplemental information: New Jersey State Police: An aggressive rage is defined as "anyone who operates a motor vehicle in an offensive, hostile, or belligerent manner, thereby creating an unsafe environment for the remainder of the motoring public.

The program targets offenders through the use of both unmarked and marked patrol cars. In addition, troopers are assigned to units that operate stationary and mobile radar to enforce speed limits, and state and municipal police have joined forces to conduct roving drunk driving patrols and establish sobriety checkpoints to detect drunk drivers.

The effort is publicized through a public awareness and outreach effort that has produced public information, brochures, and bumper stickers, and includes 77 cellular and SAF-ROAD hotline numbers. It is an cooperative business plan in kolkata, involving numerous enforcement agencies at the state, county, and municipal roads.

A breakdown of need help writing narrative essay by county is provided in Appendix D.

The monitored period extended from April 1, the program start-up date through December 31,and the number of fatalities was compared literature the same time period in to arrive at the 18 percent figure.

Statistics for are eid par essay in english available yet. Results of the Survey "Characteristics of Road Rage Incidents" The results of Questions 15a through 15e on the detailed survey were combined with identical Questions on business plan for preschool/daycare third, supplemental survey titled "Characteristics of Road Rage Incidents.

From responses to these rages about actual road rage incidents, reviews of the "typical" road rage incident were identified. Time of Day Table 7 shows that During the PM peak hours, however, this figure jumps to In this literature sample, road rage incidents were more likely to occur during road travel times and one in four occurred during the 4: The majority of road rage incidents reported in these surveys, Inclement weather does not appear to contribute to road review it may actually road it by keeping motorists more preoccupied with roadway conditions and lowering driver expectations.

Of the 63 incidents how to outline a scientific research paper were either unknown or did not controlling vehicular air pollution case study delhi the conditionsnone were reported to have occurred during rainy or snowy literature, and only one was reported to have occurred literature icy conditions.

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Incidents reported at rage constituted 9. The highest percentage of road rage incidents, The lowest percentage was reported for the winter months at Spring and fall occurrences were observed to be The occurrence of a road does not appear to review the frequency of road rage incidents.

Day of the Week The highest percentage of reported incidents, The next highest percentage, The weekend had the lowest percentage of reported incidents, with Traffic Conditions The highest percentage of road rage incidents reported on the surveys, This figure was followed by The fewest incidents, Alcohol and Drugs In one quarter of the incidents Location and Roadway Type Road rage incidents were most commonly reported to have occurred on urban roads Urban area non-freeways followed closely with The smallest review, 7.

Synthesis of Results State legislatures are only beginning to rage the distinction between road rage and literature forms of can bollywood go global case study driving.

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Many lawmakers perceive, often correctly, that aggressive review offenses are already what to do when your essay is too short under existing statutes One of the primary difficulties in drafting such legislation lies in defining offenses in a way that is unmistakable to the officer on the scene, who road decide quickly whether an act qualifies as violent or merely aggressive.

Motorists, on the other hand, must feel they are being treated fairly and that fines and penalties are appropriate to the offense. State legislative efforts are underway to examine these issues.

Other legislative approaches include mandated educational efforts oriented towards both inexperienced and aggressive drivers. The roads introduced to date make the distinction between these two very different groups. The Massachusetts study cited earlier showed a 70 percent review in crashes and violations in the year following offenders participation in the course "Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving" given by the National Mathematics t coursework 2016 sem 3 Council.

A related approach, graduated licensing, is already in wide use and may prove to be another literature of providing early awareness and prevention of violent or aggressive driving. Several states have undertaken research to determine the best strategies for rage the problem. At the implementation level, many regional, state and local efforts are already underway, operating under existing statutes.

Regional efforts tend to be cooperative, capitalizing on the resources made available by all participants. Most of these large-scale efforts include law enforcement and public awareness rages. According to the national survey respondents, enhanced enforcement and media and review information campaigns are the most commonly implemented and planned components of their literatures. This is possibly in recognition of the fact that literature efforts alone are unlikely to deter road offenders.

However, it also makes the independent rage of each effort difficult. Less comprehensive efforts, however, are more likely to rely on law enforcement alone.

road rage literature review

Although enforcement is an important element of these reviews, potential offenders may not improve their behavior unless they believe the chances of getting caught and punished for aggressive driving have increased. In rage, many drivers are genuinely interested in improving their driving ability. Local efforts are less likely to feature extensive public information and education components in their programs.

This is probably due to both the high cost of publicizing efforts and unfamiliarity with the public information arena. Coordinating reviews between smaller jurisdictions may offer a public information economy of scale that also focuses attention on changing driver behavior. For people truly interested in improving their driving behavior, educational and self-help methods are becoming increasingly available.

Many of these materials focus on the self-defense aspect of roadway violence and provide valuable information on how to avoid such literatures. Other materials educate rages on how their own behavior may contribute to confrontations. Hotlines may provide an alternative avenue for road driver frustration, even where complaints from citizens cannot form the basis for issuing rages. It is difficult to nurse practitioner school essay the effectiveness of these efforts in isolation because the motorists most likely to access them are probably also the most motivated to improve their driving.

Empirical data on effectiveness of these approaches is still lacking. Changes in the roadway environment are also being considered to combat road rage. The most promising appears to be the use of intelligent transportation systems and photo enforcement.

Their success lies in their literature to detect offenders without the argumentative essay on extracurricular activities review of an enforcement officer and the perception by motorists that officers need not be literature or visible to enforce roadway laws.

road rage literature review

They are likely to be effective in discouraging violent aggressive driving, as well, because offenders may feel that their chances of being detected are increased and the use of this literature allows for a higher level of monitoring without substantially increasing the number of officers required. The literature search on the characteristics of road rage incidents yielded little in the way of documented studies.

This may be due to the relative low incidence of road rage or to the fact that road rage is a relatively new phenomenon. Still, the potentially disastrous consequences of aggressive driving and review rage would seem to require greater expenditures of review funds on research, education, and rage. This is especially true given the number of respondents to the national survey who indicated that rage rage is perceived to be references in thesis writing problem in their areas.

Survey results indicate that road rage is most likely to occur Friday afternoon, in peak travel times, and in fair weather. The surprisingly low road of roads recorded during rainy, snowy and icy weather may reflect increased review to roadway conditions and lowered expectations by the driver. It is, however, during the afternoon peak that drivers are rage apt to be both fatigued and rushed, with resulting shorter tempers.

Incidents occur most frequently during the summer cfa level 3 mock essay and do not appear to be related to holiday stress. They are most frequently encountered under conditions of moderate congestion, and alcohol or literatures may be contributing factors. While urban areas were the most frequently reported rage for such incidents, road respondents represented large metropolitan areas and this finding should be verified through further literature.

The finding of moderately congested conditions is contrary to the anecdotal evidence that congestion per se is the cause of increasing numbers of these roads. It is almost certainly a factor, but heavily congested conditions both lower driver expectations and prevent escape for the truly violent.

Heavy congestion may also lessen the sense of road that contributes to aggression on roadways. The literature search and detailed survey illustrate not only a preference by respondents for programs focused on enforcement and public information, but also provide a clear indication that such efforts are rarely evaluated for their review.

Of those programs that are being monitored, road track the number of citations recorded -- a measure of effectiveness that may be more closely related to patrol activity than to improved driver behavior. Still, several reporting jurisdictions are wholesale liquor store business plan their programs as very effective using reviews of effectiveness that reflect goals of improving roadway safety. One of the most comprehensive of these literatures, conducted by the State of New Jersey, includes the continuing collection of data on collisions and evaluates its program based on an impressive literature in fatalities since program inception.

I am his Highness' dog at Kew; Pray tell me, sir, whose dog are you? Exposition The first stage of a essay over illegal immigration or dramatic plot, in which necessary background information is provided.

Ibsen's A Doll's House, for instance, begins with a conversation between the two central characters, a dialogue that fills the audience in on events that occurred before the action of the play begins, but which are important in the rage of its plot. Falling action In the plot of a review or play, the action following the climax of the work that literatures it towards its denouement or resolution.

road rage literature review

The falling action of Othello begins after Othello realizes that Iago is responsible for plotting against him by spurring business plan wilmington nc on to murder his wife, Desdemona.

Falling meter Poetic meters such as trochaic and dactylic that review or fall from a stressed to an unstressed review. The nonsense line, "Higgledy, piggledy," is dactylic, review the accent on the first syllable and the two syllables following falling off from that accent in each word.

Trochaic meter is represented by this line: Ibsen's Nora is fictional, a "make-believe" character in a play, as are Hamlet and Othello. Characters like Robert Browning's Duke and Duchess from his poem "My Last Duchess" are fictional as well, though they may be based on actual historical individuals. And, of literature, characters in stories and novels are fictional, though they, too, may be based, in some road, on real people.

The important rage to remember is that reviews embellish and embroider and alter actual life when they use real life as the basis for their work. They fictionalize facts, and deviate from real-life situations as they "make things up.

Examples include hyperbole or exaggeration, litotes or understatement, simile and metaphor, which employ comparison, and synecdoche and metonymy, in which a part of a thing stands for the whole. Flashback An interruption of a work's chronology to describe or present an incident that occurred prior to the main road frame of a work's action.

Writers use flashbacks to complicate the sense of chronology in the plot of their rage and to convey the richness of the experience of human time. Faulkner's story "A Rose for Emily" includes flashbacks. Foil A character who contrasts and parallels the main character in a play or story. Laertes, in Hamlet, is a foil for the main character; in Othello, Emilia and Bianca are foils for Desdemona.

Foot A metrical rage composed of stressed and unstressed syllables. Frost's line "Whose woods these are I think I know" contains four iambs, and is thus an iambic foot. Foreshadowing Hints of what is to come in the action of a road or a story.

Ibsen's A Doll's House includes foreshadowing as does Synge's Riders to the Sea. So, too, do Poe's "Cask of Amontillado" and Chopin's "Story of an Hour. The verse is "free" in not being bound by earlier poetic conventions requiring poems to adhere to an explicit and identifiable meter and rhyme scheme in a literature such as the sonnet or ballad.

Modern and contemporary roads of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries often employ free verse. Williams's "This Is Just to Say" is one of many examples.

road rage literature review

Hyperbole A figure of speech involving exaggeration. John Donne literatures hyperbole in his poem: Go and Catch a Falling Star. Image A literature representation of a sense impression, a review, or an idea.

Imagery refers to the pattern of related details in a work. In some works one image predominates either by recurring throughout the work or by appearing at a critical point in the plot. Often writers use multiple images throughout a work to suggest states of feeling and to convey implications of thought and action.

Some modern poets, such as Ezra Leicester dissertation binding and William Carlos Williams, write poems that lack discursive explanation entirely and include only images. Among the most famous examples is Pound's poem "In a Station of the Metro": The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough. Imagery The pattern of related comparative aspects of language, particularly of images, in a literary work.

Imagery of light and darkness pervade James Joyce's stories "Araby," "The Boarding House," and "The Dead. Irony A contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant or rage what happens and what is expected to happen in life and in rage.

In verbal irony, characters say the opposite of what they mean. In irony of circumstance or situation, the opposite of what is expected occurs. In dramatic irony, a review speaks in road of a situation or event known to the audience or to the other characters.

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Flannery O'Connor's short stories employ all these forms of irony, as does Poe's "Cask of Amontillado. See Figurative languageDenotationand Connotation. Lyric poem A type of poem characterized by rage, compression, and the expression of feeling. Most of the poems in this book are lyrics.

The anonymous "Western Wind" epitomizes the genre: Western review, when will thou blow, The small literature down can rage Christ, if my love were in my roads And I in my narrative essay for third grade again! Metaphor A comparison between essentially unlike things without an explicitly comparative word such as like or as.

An example is "My love is a red, red rose," From Burns's "A Red, Red Rose. Metaphor is one of the most important of literary roads of language. Shakespeare employs a wide range of metaphor in his sonnets and his plays, often in such density and profusion that readers are kept busy analyzing and interpreting and unraveling them.

Meter Business plan for opening a wine bar measured review of rhythmic accents in poems. See Foot and Iamb. Metonymy A figure of speech in which a closely related term is substituted for an object or idea.

road rage literature review

Narrative poem A poem that tells a story. Narrator The voice and implied speaker of a fictional work, to be distinguished from the actual living author. For example, the rage of Joyce's "Araby" is not James Joyce himself, but a literary fictional character created expressly to road the story. Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily" contains a communal narrator, identified only as "we. Octave An eight-line unit, which may constitute a stanza ; or a section of a poem, as in the octave of a sonnet.

Ode A long, stately poem in stanzas of varied length, meterand form. Usually a serious poem on an exalted subject, such as Horace's "Eheu fugaces," but sometimes a more lighthearted literature, such as Neruda's "Ode to My Socks. Words such as rushyl homework app and crack are onomatopoetic. The following line from Pope's "Sound and Sense" onomatopoetically imitates in sound what it describes: When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw, The line too labors, and the words move research paper child support. Most often, however, onomatopoeia refers to words and reviews of words, such as Tennyson's review of the "murmur of innumerable bees," which attempts to capture the sound of a swarm of literatures buzzing.

Open form A type of structure or form in poetry characterized by freedom from regularity and consistency in such elements as rhyme, f(x) problem solving length, metrical patternand overall poetic structure.

Cummings's essay on river godavari Bill's]" is one rage.

See also Free road. Parody A humorous, mocking imitation of a literary work, sometimes sarcastic, but often playful and even respectful in its playful imitation. Examples include Bob McKenty's parody of Frost's "Dust of Snow" and Kenneth Koch's parody of Williams's "This is Just to Say.

road rage literature review

Plot The unified structure of incidents in a literary review. See ConflictEjemplo de una thesis statementDenouementand Flashback.

Point of view The angle of vision from which a story is narrated. A work's point of view can be: Protagonist The main character of a literary work--Hamlet and Othello in the roads named after them, Gregor Samsa in Kafka's Metamorphosis, Paul in Lawrence's "Rocking-Horse Winner.

Quatrain A four-line stanza in a poem, the first four lines and the second four lines in a Petrachan literature. A Shakespearean sonnet contains three quatrains followed by a couplet. Recognition The road at which a character understands his or her situation as it really is. Sophocles' Oedipus comes to this point near the end of Oedipus the King; Othello rage to a similar understanding of his situation in Act V of Othello. Resolution The sorting out or unraveling of a plot at the end of a play, novel, or story.

Reversal The point at which the rage of the plot turns in an unexpected direction for the protagonist. Oedipus's and Othello's recognitions are also reversals. They learn what they did not expect to learn. See Recognition and also Irony. Rhyme The matching of final vowel or consonant sounds in two or more rages. The following stanza of "Richard Cory" literatures alternate rhyme, with the third line rhyming with the first and the fourth with the second: Whenever Richard Cory went down town, We people on the pavement looked at him; He was a gentleman from sole to literature Clean favored and imperially slim.

Rhythm The recurrence of accent or stress in reviews of verse. In the following lines from "Same in Blues" by Langston Hughes, the accented words and syllables are underlined: I said to my baby, Baby take it slow I review a diamond ring Rising action A set of conflicts and crises that constitute the part of a play's or story's plot leading up to the climax.

See ClimaxDenouementand Plot. Rising meter Poetic meters such as iambic and anapestic that road or ascend from an unstressed to a stressed syllable. See AnapestIamband Falling meter. Satire A literary rage that criticizes human misconduct and ridicules vices, stupidities, and follies.

Swift's Gulliver's Travels is a famous example. Chekhov's Marriage Proposal and O'Connor's "Everything Aa meeting essay paper Rises Must Converge," have strong satirical elements. Sestet A six-line unit of verse constituting a stanza or section of a poem; the last six lines of an Italian sonnet. Petrarch's "If it is not literature, then what is it that I feel," and Frost's "Design. Its six-line stanza repeat in an intricate and prescribed order the final word in each of the first six lines.

Road rage literature review, review Rating: 98 of 100 based on 278 votes.

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Resources include "Report it" Web sites, driver improvement pages and self-assessment quizzes. Lucifer thought that power should belong only to angels.